For thousands of years, gold has occupied a unique role in the financial systems of cultures worldwide. Unlike virtually every other commodity, gold has value far beyond its applications in industry. While business sectors including dentistry, electronics and jewelry use gold in their products, there is simply not enough commercial demand to explain the very high price markets assign to the yellow metal. However, the high price is no mystery. Since the beginning of civilization, humankind has viewed gold as a proxy for money and wealth. This reality has made it one of the most fascinating and misunderstood commodities.